Potential for TOD in India

Indian cities are developing at a rapid pace with the support of various national level schemes and missions. There is a clear shift towards an integrated approach and strategic planning. This is particularly evident in India’s Smart Cities Mission, which is focused on stimulating development and investments in Indian cities. Institutional factors and service level benchmarks at the city level are also discussed. 

National Smart Cities Mission

The Smart Cities Mission of India has caught global attention with its scale as well as game-changing interventions that redefine the planning practice in Indian cities. Improving urban mobility and quality of life through transit-oriented development is a recurring theme in many of the cities selectedin the first year of the mission. This section looks at the TOD proposals in some of these cities under the National Smart Cities Mission.

Smart Cities Mission

The National Smart Cities Mission launched by the Government of India is leading the transformation in the urban development scenario in the country. Its aim is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens along with a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘smart solutions’ (Ministry of Urban Development, 2015). The mission aims to develop 109 smart cities in India over a period of 5 years. Out of these, 33 cities are selected to receive funding assistance in the first year of the program (2015-16). Each of these cities will receive Rs. 2 billion each in the first year of the programme (2015-16). These cities called as Lighthouse cities (20 cities) and Fast track cities (13 cities) were selected through a competitive process where cities submitted Smart City Proposals (SCPs) detailing the strategic plan for the city, local area plan for a selected area in the city (called Area Based Proposal) and a city-wide plan of ‘smart solutions’ (called Pan city solution).

In the domain of mobility, previously under the JnNURM, the focus in Indian cities has been on building transportation infrastructure such as Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) and road/highway construction. This increased the mobility options, but a lack of comprehensive approach to integrated mobility left large gaps unaddressed, especially in walk modes and last mile connectivity needs of public transit users.

In the smart cities mission, the SCPs were prepared with wide citizen engagement to identify the most urgent needs in the cities. City authorities solicited citizen suggestions and co-created solutions under area based proposals (ABPs) and pan city solutions (PCPs). Improving urban mobility emerged as one of the most urgent need in the citizen engagement exercises conducted in many of the cities. To address the urgency, using Smart Cities Mission as an opportunity, these cities are now looking forward to creating livable environments with better quality of life by improving the urban mobility scenario and preventing urban sprawl.

The Smart Cities Mission is a step towards that balance between compact, low-energy intensive development, advocating for sustainable primary energy sources. Smart Cities aim to decrease the challenges of resource scarcity, climate change and infrastructure deterioration, particularly healthcare, housing, water and transportation, and demand for better economic opportunities and social benefits. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) as an urban growth strategy is promoted under Smart Cities as a legitimate and effective guide for the future growth of cities. The SCPs acknowledge the relevance of TOD to address these issues, with a focus on integrated mobility and creation of compact, dense, mixed use area in close proximity to transit stations. The detailed breakdown of the projects from the SCPs show that projects such as construction of highways, parking lots and others that encourage private vehicles use are converging funds from AMRUT (National Mission for infrastructure improvement), while projects that orient towards creating walkable communities, reducing the need for commuting, investing in transit oriented developments and preserving and developing open spaces are directly using the smart cities mission funds.

TOD is also identified as a strategy in the area based developments to the pressing problems of urban mobility and several other challenges the cities are facing, in 15 out of the 33 cities. These cities are Ahmedabad, Belagavi, Bhopal, Bhubaneswar, Chennai, Coimbatore, Davanagere, Guwahati, Indore, Jabalpur, Kochi, Chandigarh, Raipur, Faridabad and Ranchi. These cities propose TOD in their SCPs to create replicable models of sustainable development in the city. Specifically, TOD is proposed as dense, walkable, mixed use neighbourhoods with significant housing and job opportunities in close proximity to transit stations. The nature of TOD proposals in these cities is briefly described under.


TOD proposal in Ahmedabad is centred around the BRT system. The TOD Influence Zone extends 200 m on either side of the BRTS corridor. In this zone, the FSI would be increased from 1.8 to 4. The SCP focuses on retrofitting of existing physical infrastructure for the densified development as well as extension of public realm in the area. It gives special attention to pedestrian facilities through footpaths, street furniture, street lighting, green and open spaces, and pedestrian bridges.


The idea of the area based development in Belagavi is to decongest the inner city area and create commercial corridor and new growth centres with mixed land-use. The areas will be economically viable while also preserving the rich cultural heritage and promoting sustainable environment. The SCP gives a lot of attention to retrofit of open spaces and water bodies, affordable housing, pedestrian and NMT infrastructure and improvement of public transportation.


Bhopal uses TOD in the business district proposed for the ABD. It will promote mixed-use residential and commercial areas to maximise access to public transport, and encourage transit ridership. The SCP proposes elevated LRT corridor on two sides of the site. The urban design of the site utilises the potential of this transit system to create a TOD. Projects also include walkability with interconnected greenways. Demand management strategies are applied by restricting vehicles to the periphery and by providing alternative public transport. Variety of land-use includes retail plaza, housing, several public plazas, office spaces etc.




Bhubaneswar’s TOD proposal in the ABD envisions to retrofit and redevelop a railway station multimodal hub adjacent to the main railway station in the city. This area is proposed to be walkable and well connected with low-carbon/carbon neutral mixed use development, and built with strong transportation network and green infrastructure. Public realm investments in the area will focus on street, public spaces and public buildings. Specific projects in the area include a bus terminal, dedicated bus lanes, dedicated street vending zone, pedestrian plaza, retail shopping, office and residential spaces, hotel and convention centre, etc.


Area based development in Chennai focuses on the improvement of a CBD area based on the principles of TOD. It adopts long-term development plans that encourage a diverse mix of uses, including employment, housing, regional attractions and public spaces to create a high quality compact urban environment, especially near Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations. Specific TOD projects are landscaping for NMT paths, pedestrianisation, retrofitting of opens spaces, footpath widening along main roads, cycle sharing network, integrating all the public transport and feeder systems such as bus and e-rickshaw, etc.


Coimbatore’s SCP focuses on transit orientation and strengthening of mixed use/compact city dimensions in the city’s planning framework. Under these principles, specific attention is given to non-motorised mobility and improvement in public realm specifically through the city’s water bodies. The project to create a 30 km NMT corridor with green pathways and public cycle sharing connects to vantage points in the site and connects with rest of the city.


In Devanagere, the proposal in the core city area aims to augment the density, while carefully mitigating the problems of congestion through articulated street-design controls, such as walkability, priority to NMT and increased dependency on public transport. Redevelopment of the existing old bus terminal into a central transit hub and retail commercial adjacent to railway station is proposed on the principles of TOD. Some projects aligning to TOD are bike share pods, creation of public plaza and multi-use buildings.


Guwahati plans to retrofit a continuous area adjacent to river as a modern eco-sensitive zone with high density and mixed use communities that serve the growth of the city. The site is designed as a walkable district connected to mass-transit, served by organised IPT and with pedestrian priority in planning along with cycling facilities.



The strategic road-map for Indore revolves around the use of TOD for rejuvenation of urban form, maintaining the architectural integrity, cultural inheritance, economic development and digitalisation while leveraging monetisation of public land to finance urban development. The project includes vehicle-free zones in areas served by BRT line, a proposed metro line through the congested core city area, pedestrian and NMT facilities and creation of public plazas to improve the public realm, and redevelopment into mixed-use high rise buildings adjacent to mass transit system.


ABD in Jabalpur focuses on high density mixed use development based on the principles of TOD to energise and regenerate the CBD. Development around proposed mass transit station along the axis connecting the station to the market includes interventions, such as pedestrian pathways, NMT infrastructure will also link green spaces.



Kochi proposes leveraging the metro rail to develop the station area in the CBD as a TOD housing a population of 31,500 whilst creating about 37,096 job opportunities. Integrated multi-modal transport including metro, bus and ferry systems will improve accessibility supported by NMT and pedestrian infrastructure. Other TOD projects include improvement and development of open and green spaces in the city.


The area with four sectors, including the commercial hub is selected for the implementation of the TOD. The focus is on low carbon mobility, healthy living, social equity and vibrant economy. The SCP proposes leveraging the transit node to create a business environment with a mix of complimentary functions, including convention centre, museum and art gallery, mixed income housing, serviced apartments, office and retail, dormitories etc.


Raipur in the SCP proposes to use TOD to build a re-densified compact, walkable urban form at the city core. Using TOD with land management tools, such as transfer of development right, the selected site will have mixed land-use that promotes walk from home to work communities. Special focus is on improving accessibility with barrier free design, pedestrian and NMT infrastructure, and walk-only streets. Improving open and green areas is another area of focus in Raipur.


In Faridabad, the SCP developed modules focus on low carbon mobility, place making and developing vibrant built spaces using the principles of TOD. Transit oriented, compact, high density, mixed use development is proposed near metro stations along with multimodal hub connecting railway station, metro station, bus terminal and IPT. The SCP also propose barrier free footpaths, public bike share scheme and several other pedestrian and NMT infrastructure.


In Ranchi, greenfield development is being developed on the basis of TOD principles. It aims at promoting mixed use along the trunk roads and improving green and water spaces in the city. The focus is on densification to 158 persons/acre as compared to present 34 persons/acre. The SCP predicts an increase in the share of open space per person and reduction in the distance to work. It also proposes improvements to public transportation, NMT and pedestrian infrastructure.

In addition to these fifteen cities, several other cities have made proposals that incorporate some elements TOD. For instance, Lucknow SCP proposes ‘mobility nodes’ that are areas within the city that facilitate bicycle hiring, host IPT terminals and provide charging points for e-rickshaws. These are located in areas with intense commercial activities. Cities such as Ludhiana, New Delhi Municipal Council, Pune, Solapur, Udaipur, Visakhapatnam and several others propose public bike shares - a step towards improving last mile connectivity - in their area based proposals. Bhagalpur SCP proposes to make the area close to railway station walkable with a mixed land-use. The SCP of New Town Kolkata has propose to leverage metro rail to develop compact zones around metro stations. Several cities are also proposing “Complete Streets”, mixed-use and pedestrian only streets, etc.

In the preliminary analysis of the 33 smart city proposals, it is seen that there is a lot of attention paid to creating dense, compact mixed-use communities served by public transportation and NMT and pedestrian infrastructure. The TOD constructs of urban density, urban diversity, urban design, housing and mobility are addressed at different scales in various cities. But within these, urban design interventions are limited to complete streets and creation of open spaces in most of the cities. There is a need for focused solutions for improving the built form and the housing stock as well. In the second year of smart cities mission, a greater scope of TOD is anticipated.

Economic Potential of Metro, Rail and Bus Investments

Infrastructure improvements in a city’s mass transit system support its economic growth by saving time and money lost in commute, generating new jobs supported by manufacturing, construction and transit operations and generating potential for investment in real estate and infrastructure development. With multiple Indian cities investing in large scale public transit infrastructure development and improvement, there is an opportunity to capitalise on this potential. This section makes an estimate of this potential for 18 cities with bus, rail or metro transit.


Development of metro in India first began in Kolkata in 1984. It was completed in 1995, followed by Delhi Metro in 2002. In 2016, 20 Indian cities are building metro systems, many of which have been funded through JnNURM. Out of a total length of 835 km of approved length in the different cities across the country, 307 km (36%) is operational and 527.6 km (63%) is still under construction. Additional 343.6 km of corridor has been approved and 879 km has been proposed. This amounts to nearly 910 stations and 115 interchanges, with a total estimated project cost of Rs. 2.16 trillion.

Box 35: Delhi Metro Ridership

Delhi metro has reached an annual ridership of 8700 lakh passengers (DMRC, 2014-15) (89% increase over five years). 20% of DMRC’s revenue is from non-operational sources – mainly real estate development and advertisements. DMRC receive no subsidy for operation and maintenance from the state or central government. Mumbai with one operational metro line has crossed 1000 lakh annual ridership.

The economic potential of metro construction is calculated for its influence area based on two components - construction potential based on the allowable built space and job potential based on potential job density. To estimate the number of stations which may be developed as a TOD, two approaches were adopted:

Approach 1: 25% of the stations in the system will be developed as TOD

Approach 2: Terminals and interchanges in the system will be developed as TOD

Box 36: Multiplier Effects of TOD investment

An increase in public transportation spending can have very real “multiplier” effect, as it leads to more jobs not only in the construction and transportation industries but also in other industries that benefit from indirect and induced impacts (Glen Weisbrod, 2009). The study shows that $1 billion of annual investment, over time, can lead to more than $1.7 billion of net annual additional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) due to cost savings. This is in addition to the $1.8 billion of GDP supported by the pattern of public transportation spending. Thus, the total impact can be $3.5 billion of GDP generated per year per $1 billion of investment in public transportation. The study also shows that nearly 24,000 jobs are supported for a year, per billion dollars of spending on public transportation capital.

One of the broad measures is business output (sales volume), which shows an average of $3.60 of change per dollar of public transportation spending. The impact measure preferred by most economists is GDP which shows an average of $1.80 of change per dollar of investment. GDP consists of labour income and net corporate profits. In addition, the jobs per billion dollars of investment is shown, which averages to 36,108. It is important to note that these numbers indicate the scale of investment impacts on the economy and are not benefit/cost ratios.


The following assumptions were made for estimating construction and job potential of the TOD influence area:

  •  Construction potential is the same as the gross floor area that can be developed.
  • The construction limits are based on the following: 
    • For calculation of potential at the node - Delhi’s Draft TOD Influence Plan (2012) (refer to Box 26). The policy prescribed creation of an Intense Zone (300m distance from transit stations) and a Standard Zone (300m to 800m distance from transit stations).
    • For calculation along the corridor - Influence Zone definition from Delhi Master Plan 2021 TOD Policy, which describes it to be of 500m in depth on both sides of the metro corridor along the length of the system. This is used for calculating job and construction potential in Delhi and Ahmedabad, both of which have adopted a corridor-based approach in their TOD policy.
  • In Intense Zone, 80% of land is available for development
  • In Standard Zone, 50% of land is available for development
  • Upper and lower limits of FSI in Standard and Intense zones are based on the lowest and highest FSI available among the three Indian cities studies
    • In Intense Zone: 3 for lower limit and 5.4 for upper limit
    • In Standard Zone: 1.33 for lower limit and 3 for upper limit
  • In case of node-based development, job densities in Intense and Standard Zones are based on State of Florida Department of Transportation Guidelines for TOD. Densities for Urban Core are considered for Intense Zone and densities for Urban General for the Standard Zone
    • Intense Zone: lower limit of 81 jobs/ha and an upper limit of 202.5 jobs/ha
    • Standard Zone: lower limit of 40.5 jobs/ha and upper limit 60.75 jobs/ha
  • In case of corridor based influence zone, only the job densities of Intense Zone are considered with the upper and lower limits.
  • Cost of construction is assumed to be Rs. 2500/sq. ft
  • Total metro length is the sum of operational and under construction metro corridor and does not include additional approved or proposed metro length.
  • Total of number of stations and interchanges are only counted for operational and under construction metro lines and do not include additional approved or proposed metro lines
  • Number of interchanges is an approximate figure compiling connections between operational and under construction metro lines and connections between those lines and railway stations. It has been compiled by interpretation of the metro rail plans.

The methodology of calculating construction and job potential is described in Table 14


Construction Potential

In Node Based Development

For approach 1, the calculations are shown in Table 15. Some estimates for cities with the lowest and highest potential are listed below:

  • In case of Navi Mumbai and Jaipur, the construction potential in a Standard TOD Zone (800 m radius) varies from $1.29 billion to $2.91 billion and in case of Bangalore it varies from $11.95 billion to $26.95 billion.
  • In case of Navi Mumbai and Jaipur, construction potential in an Intense TOD Zone (300 m radius) varies from $0.76 billion to $1.37 billion and in case of Bangalore it varies from $7.06 billion to $12.70 billion.

For approach 2, the calculations are shown in  Table 16. Some estimates for cities with the lowest and highest potential are listed below:

  • In case of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Noida, the construction potential in a Standard TOD zone varies from $0.94 billion to $2.11 billion and in case of Kolkata it varies from is $10.31 billion to $23.25 billion
  • In case of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai and Noida, the construction potential in an Intense TOD zone varies from $0.55 billion to $1 billion and in case of Kolkata it varies from as $6.09 billion to $10.96 billion.

If the available surface area is developed based on the permissible limits within each city, it embodies average construction potential per node to be between $0.75 to $1.55 billion.

In Corridor Based Development

Economic potential for Delhi and Ahmedabad are calculated separately in Table 19 & 20. Implementing corridor based influence area for the entire length of Delhi’s metro (349 km) will generate construction potential of $455.35 billion. Implementing corridor based influence area for the entire length of the BRTS in Ahmedabad will generate construction potential of $114.82 billion.

Job Potential

In Node Based Development

For approach 1, the calculations are shown in Table 17. Some estimates for cities with the lowest and highest potential are listed below:

  • In case of Jaipur and Navi Mumbai job potential in a Standard Zone varies from 19,244 jobs to 28,866 jobs. In case of Bangalore this number varies from 1,78,446 jobs to 2,67,669 jobs.
  • In case of Jaipur and Navi Mumbai job potential in an Intense Zone can vary from 6298 jobs to 15,745. In case of Bangalore this number varies from 58,401 jobs to 1,46,002 jobs.
  • For approach 2, the calculations are shown in Table 18. Some estimates for cities with the lowest and highest potential are listed below:
  • In case of Mumbai, Noida and Navi Mumbai job potential in a Standard Zone varies from 13,996 jobs to 20,994 jobs. In case of Kolkata this number can vary from 1,53,954 jobs to 2,30,930 jobs.
  • In case of Mumbai, Noida and Navi Mumbai job potential in an Intense Zone varies from 4,580 jobs to 11,451 jobs. In case of Kolkata this number can vary from 50,385 jobs to 1,25,962 jobs.

In Corridor Based Development

Implementing corridor based influence area for the entire length of Delhi’s metro (349 km) will generate job potential varying from 28,26,900 (considering the lower limit) to 70,67,250 (considering the upper limit). Implementing corridor based influence area for the entire length of the BRTS in Ahmedabad will generate job potential varying 7,12,800 (lower limit) to 17,82,000 (upper limit).

The corridor based Influence Zone approach in Delhi assumes development of an area of 1 km (width of influence zone) x 349 km (length of metro corridors). An estimation of the number of potential jobs based on the assumption discussed earlier shows that:

• The resultant area of 34900 ha or 349 translates into a large number of potential jobs, ranging from 2.8 million to 7.6 million

• These numbers are too large, even for the 16.7 million population of Delhi, with a workforce of 33% (Census, 2011) or 5.5 million and an unemployment rate of 3% (National Sample Survey Office, 68th Round)

However, a phased approach, implemented only on certain stretches of the metro corridor, is likely to be more suitable as discussed below. For this, job and household densities are calculated for 1 of the Influence Zone. The results are discussed below:

• The population density of the Influence Zone is limited at 2000 PPH (Delhi TOD Policy), i.e. 48000 persons/sq. km or 12000 households/

• The maximum number of potential jobs 7.6 million translates to 20,250 jobs/sq. km. This is equal to a jobs:household ratio of 1.68.

Even if the job:household ratio estimated for the phased approach is lower than the general standards of urban areas, it points to a more manageable approach. Alternatively, the city can also benefit from a return to its original nodal TOD Influence Zones.

Ahmedabad uses a dual approach of nodal and corridor based development with a minimum FSI of 1.8 and maximum of 4 along metro and BRT; and FSI of 5.4 in the Central Business District Node.


The Indian Railway (IR) has one of the world’s largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km of track over a route of 67,312 km and 7,112 stations. In 2014-15, IR carried 8.397 billion passengers annually and 1058.81 million tons of freight in the year (Indian Railway Statistical summary, 2014-15). Rail Land Development Authority (RLDA) is a statutory authority, under the Ministry of Railways, set-up by an Amendment to the Railways Act, 1989, for the development of vacant railway land for commercial use for land value capture. Indian Railways has approximately 43,000 hectares of vacant land, which is not required for operational purposes in the foreseeable future. It is proposed to be identified by the Zonal Railways and the details thereof to be advised to Railway Board.

Box 37: Categories of Railway Stations

Railway stations in India are grouped in seven categories, i.e. A1, A, B, C, D, E & F depending upon the earnings, which is an indicator of the passenger traffic. A category refers to non-suburban stations with an annual passenger earnings of minimum Rs. 6 crore upto Rs 50 crore. A1 refers to non-suburban stations with an annual passenger earning more than Rs. 50 crore.


Such plots of land will thereafter be entrusted to RLDA by Railway Board in phases for commercial development. Thereby around 400 A and A1 category stations are offered for redevelopment on ‘as is where is’ basis. These are to be redeveloped based on the local norms and the needs of the railway, including the relocation of structures (if any). The business plan suggests that the revenues realised from real estate development will be able to cover the entire cost of station redevelopment after meeting the full expenditure on real estate development and maintenance.

Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation (IRSDC) is the nodal agency for undertaking railway stations improvements under the Ministry of Railways. It has been assigned to work on eight railway stations, including Chandigarh, Habibganj (Bhopal), Shivaji Nagar (Pune), Bijwasan (New Delhi), Anand Vihar (New Delhi), Surat (Gujarat), SAS Nagar (Mohali) and Gandhi Nagar (Gujarat). Habibganj station is the first railway station to be redeveloped using PPP model under this program. Total estimated cost of works for this is Rs. 100 Crore and estimated cost towards commercial development is approx. Rs. 350 Crore, the redevelopment of Anand Vihar Railway station is planned to be undertaken on Design, Build, Finance, Operate and Transfer (DBFOT) model. The estimated cost of the station redevelopment is Rs. 200 Crore excluding the commercial development cost. (Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation Limited)

The railway has also proposed to develop a terminus at Panvel, Navi Mumbai. The development is proposed under a cost sharing mechanism between Central Railway and Government of Maharashtra (represented by CIDCO). Its first stage will be completed in 3 to 4 years starting in 2016. The estimated cost for this stage is Rs. 170 Crore.

Proposal for an Integrated Complex at Seawoods Railway Station, Nerul was also approved in 2010. The site at Seawoods has a permissible FSI of 1.5 which will be translated into a development of approximately 24 Ha (Rs 600 Cr estimated at the cost of construction of Rs. 2500/sq.ft). The project involves the development of a railway station and a commercial complex along with all the necessary ancillary infrastructure facilities (eg. parking).

Bus Systems

The State Road Transport Undertakings (SRTUs) performs a vital role in daily commutes. SRTUs carried more than 2.5 billion passengers, nearly 70 million each day in the year 2014-15. The physical and financial review of the 46 reporting SRTUs in the year 2014-15 shows total revenue of Rs. 51,033.53 crore during 2014-15. Maharashtra SRTC (Rs. 7,258.66 crore), Andhra Pradesh SRTC (Rs. 4,807.68 crore) and Telangana SRTC (Rs. 3,990.84 crore) were the top three SRTUs in terms of total revenue (Transport Research Wing, 2014-15).

Over the last two decades, there have been multiple initiatives to improve bus terminals across the country. Most of these initiatives included public sector constructing “modern bus terminals” (i.e. facilities that cater to other commuter needs and market potential, with various improvements to exploit commercial potential). These terminals were usually constructed with public funds through traditional procurement options (item rate, EPC contracts etc.). Some have also been developed under PPP framework. These projects aim to become financially sustainable with sufficient revenues generation from commercial development in addition to that generated by ridership. Configuration of these projects varies significantly in terms of financial structure, institutional setup, and implementation framework. Cities have been experimenting a wide range of project structures. Bus terminal that include commercial development has been targeted by numerous states and cities in India. Some of them include:

  • Modern bus terminal at Amritsar, developed by Department of Transport, Government of Punjab under a PPP framework.
  • Uttarakhand Government developed a bus terminal at Dehradun on a similar format.
  • Andhra Pradesh Government (erstwhile) intended redevelopment of their bus depots and bus terminals at various locations to capitalise on the land available.
  • Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) attempted a similar exercise for their bus depots at various locations in Karnataka under a PPP format.

While these initiatives are not formally discussed as TOD opportunities within the city administration, they do have most of the traits and are amenable for further capitalisation of available potential. All though quite small in size compared to a complete TOD, bus depots by themselves present potential for job generation and construction while bringing in improvements in connectivity and quality of life. Some bus terminals and their construction costs are discussed ahead.

Box 38: Bus terminal improvements in Bangalore

Traffic Transit Management Centre (TTMC), Bangalore

Bangalore Municipal Transport Corporation (BMTC), the government city bus service provided has sought to develop/reconfigure a few of its terminals into Traffic Transit Management Centre (TTMC). TTMC is proposed to include facilities such as bus depots, bus terminal, several other amenities such as passenger ticket booking centres, toilets, restaurants, park and ride facilities, public health centers, post office, cyber cafes, banks & ATMs, departmental stores etc. Given the nature of activities and apparent commercial potential, these projects were configured initially as PPP projects, with private sector developing and operating the TTMCs. However, subsequent to the launch of JnNURM, these projects were reconfigured to be implemented with government finances under conventional item rate/EPC basis. Most of the facilities are constructed and operational today. In some instances, a portion of services were outsourced for private maintenance; most facilities are being managed by public sector agencies.

The scale of the projects is based on bus trips and traffic density, and projects have been sized to factor in regional commercial potential as well.

Private Bus Terminal at Kalasipalayam

Inter city buses in Karnataka are operated both by public sector agency and private sector operators. TTMCs and equivalent facilities are expected to serve public operator needs. In order to provide appropriate facilities for private buses, Government of Karnataka, configured a private bus terminal, in Bangalore city at Kalasipalayam. This facility is also expected to have all features akin to TTMCs. This facility development was initiated in early 2000s under a PPP framework; a bidder was identified, however, GoK did not pursue with that option. Subsequently, the project was reconfigured to be developed with public finances.

IMTC at Kempe Gowda Bus Station, Bangalore

Kempe Gowda Bus Station (KGBS) is located in the central business district, and serves city bus operator (operated by BMTC with about 10000 trips per day) and intercity buses (Operated by KSRTC and buses from other states serving about 2600 trips per day). This is adjacent to the city Railway Station of Bangalore. BMRCL, company operating the metro services, planned the interchange of the metro line that lies under the KGBS.

GoK intended to develop this location as an inter modal transit center (IMTC) linking all city buses, inter-state buses, metro and inter-city rail into one complex.


Shantinagar Bus Terminal

The bus terminal at Shantinagar in Bangalore was constructed in 2002 to accommodate over 200 bus schedules per day. The terminal has passenger amenities such as waiting platforms, seating, drinking water, toilets, signage etc. The airspace above the bus terminal has been utilised for provision of parking and end-uses such as home needs, offices etc. This has been a success and it has been observed that ever since these spaces have become functional the usage of the bus terminal has also increased. Nearly 38% of the area is used for commercial development in this terminal and 29% of the built up space is for parking. Bus terminal area is about 8% and other uses of BMTC is 24%. FSI used in this case 1.8 approximately.The completed cost of the project is approximately Rs. 103 Crore, resulting in an average construction cost of about Rs 1400/sq.ft at 2008-09 schedule of rates. Construction of this project was completed in 2011.

Proposed Inter State Bus Terminus (ISBT) in Panvel

The proposed ISBT in Panvel, Navi Mumbai will serve as the junction for intercity and interstate travel. The estimated cost of the ISBT is Rs. 150 Crore. It aims to facilitate concentration of bus transport activities at the hub and improve the service and safety to the commuters. The development of bus terminus and depot estimates a cost of Rs. 25 Crore. The aim is to enhance public transport by providing the infrastructure needed for bus transport in each node.

Surat Multi Modal Transportation (MMTH) Development

This a first of a kind terminal in India, which brings together three levels of government via Joint Venture Company (JVC) of Central (IRSDC), State (GSRTC) and Municipal Government), for the development of a multi modal transport hub at the Surat Railway Station. The ownership lies with the promoters, transferring only the development rights to JVC. Station re-development will be undertaken by IRSDC, bus terminus development will be done by GSRTC and utility infrastructure support and policy/land support by SMC. It is funded by commercial development on leasehold rights for the lease period of 45/90 years on the government vacant land and air space (Indian Railway Stations Development Corporation Limited, 2016).

There are various challenges that need to be addressed while configuring TOD projects. In most of the cases, focus is to minimise the construction costs, with less focus on leveraging land value through development activities. Inability to merge land use with transit nodes by cities allowed private developers to take advantage of improved mobility around these transit nodes (Cervero, 2013). A proactive approach using zoning reform, tax policy modification and investment in supportive infrastructure, can leverage the implementation of TOD. Cities need to recognise the short-term effect of public transportation spending as well as the longer-term benefits of sustained transportation investment on travel times, costs and economic productivity. Public transportation investments can have a significant impact on economy along with other social benefits. Thus it should be represented as an important public policy consideration.

There is need to recognise the short-term effect of public transportation spending as well as the longer-term benefits of sustained transportation investment on travel times, costs and economic productivity. Public transportation investments can have a significant impact on economy and other social benefits attached to it thus should be representing as an important public policy consideration.

Institutional Factors and Service Level Benchmarks

The primary objectives of maximising the efficiency of transportation infrastructure, minimising sprawl while accommodating growth in the city and offering equitable options for housing and transportation can be achieved by coordination mechanisms within the various agencies responsible for housing development and transportation in the city. This section will look at the institutional arrangements and the concept of service level benchmarks to monitor the effectiveness of land-use transportation integration.

Institutional Factors

Land-use planning in India has been devolved to the state and the local levels and the urban local bodies regulate the land-use allocation through the development plans. The regional plans coordinated by regional development authorities guide the overall growth and transportation investments in the metropolitan region. Transportation planning and service provision are done by a variety of actors (Indian Railways, state bus corporations, local city bus service providers, special purpose vehicle bodies for Metros, state and national highway corporations, intermediate personal transport and private bus operators). Thus, implementation of TOD across Indian cities requires coordination of various mechanisms at these different scales of government agencies and stakeholders.

The National Urban Transport Policy recognised the complexity arising from the multiplicity of agencies and recommends setting up of Unified Metropolitan Transport Authorities (UMTAs) in all million plus cities. The UMTA’s role was to facilitate coordination of planning, implementation and management of urban transport programs at city and regional scales, similar to the role of metropolitan planning organisation (MPOs) that were instituted in the United States. This need has been reiterated in the recommendations by the Working Group on Urban Transport for the 12th Five Year Plan with full professional, financial and legislative backing. The role of UMTA becomes increasingly important for TOD implementation irrespective of scale (node, corridor, regional) and should account for :

  • Setting up regulatory guidelines for density thresholds (in persons/hectare), street and building design guidelines, land-use mix, affordable housing mix, parking management through parking maximums and modal shares that need to be achieved in a TOD. These guidelines can be framed in separate DCRs for TOD projects.
  • Developing mechanisms for incentivising land assembly in case the TOD project involves laying out of a new mass transit line (MRT, BRT). The incentives could also include planning approvals for conforming to the regulatory guidelines.
  • Developing a range of alternatives for encouraging public transit usage through travel demand management strategies and establishing consensus within the various agencies to the suggested strategies.
  • Developing fund sharing (from the land value capture and transportation revenues) and technology sharing mechanisms to establish transportation network between buses and Metro. The case of DTC bus ridership of 4 million to derive the benefits from the ITS system of the metro with the ridership of 2.5 million is a case in point.
  • Developing financing instruments for providing affordable housing/transportation options.
  • Developing branding and outreach campaign for marketing the public transportation network in the city. The Big Bus Network has adopted differentiated marketing strategies to convey the different services (routes, frequency) in Bangalore (EMBARQ India, 2014).

Implementation of TOD projects under the Smart Cities Mission provides an opportunity to achieve some of the objectives of a UMTA. Establishment of an SPV will reduce multiplicity of agencies, complexity of processes while encouraging an integrated and collaborative approach.

Service Level Benchmarks

The concept of Service Level Benchmarks was developed by the Ministry of Urban Development under the JnNURM to measure outcomes in various services delivered by the urban local bodies. Urban Transport was included as a program area along with urban water supply and e-governance and subsequently, 10 sub areas of intervention were identified along with service level benchmarks to measure the levels of services for these 10 areas:

  • Public transport facilities
  • Pedestrian infrastructure facilities
  • Non-motorised Transport facilities
  • Level of usage of intelligent transport system (ITS) facilities
  • Travel speed (motorised and mass transit) along major corridors
  • Availability of parking spaces
  • Road safety
  • Pollution levels
  • Integrated land-use transport system and
  • Financial sustainability of public transport by bus

While Transit Oriented Development is not captured separately, majority of the factors that affect the success of TOD have been mapped and captured within the 10 sub-areas mentioned above. Some of the factors also might act as barriers to TOD and modifications might be needed; for e.g.availability of on-street paid public parking spaces might act as a perverse incentive to provide for more parking (though paid) on city streets. Limiting parking supply and pricing it to reflect its market rate is an essential push strategy in improving public transportation adoption. Similarly, the benchmarks within integrated land-use transport system capture the intensity of built-up areas using floor area ratio without considering the housing unit sizes through dwelling units/acre. Below are the suggested additions to capture the transit-oriented development in cities:

  • Average travel time to work by public transit and non-motorised modes
  • Average travel distance to work by public transit and non-motorised modes
  • Average car ownership and annual transportation expenses (individual/household)
  • Percentage of intersections designed under complete streets design standards
  • Percentage of city footpaths designed with accessibility and urban design norms
  • Percentage of signals designed for signal prioritisation for buses
  • Percentage of bus stops installations for real time bus arrival systems
  • Adoptions of parking bans/restrictions in CBD and TOD districts
  • Adoption of parking maximums and zero parking minimums in DCRs for TODs
  • Provision of bicycle parking at transit stations and the TOD
  • Bicycle sharing program in a city
  • Percentage of streets designated as pedestrian and bicycle/NMT only streets
  • Number of dwelling units/acre (before and after TOD intervention) of affordable housing and rental housing stock in TOD
  • Presence of UMTA with legislative, executive and financial commitments

If the TOD paradigm becomes dominant in Indian cities to manage land-use and travel, the indicators need to evolve to compare the outcomes across the cities. The Centre for Transit Oriented Development (CTOD), a US based non-profit focused on providing strategic guidance for TOD projects in the US recommends that TOD performance be compared at neighbourhood scales or larger, where neighbourhoods are defined as half mile radius around the transit stations. It also recommends segregating the indicators into performance indicators (for comparison across the 3760 transit station areas in the United States) and normative metrics to give additional contextual information about each of the transit stations. Similarly, performance measures for Indian TOD implementations need to be reviewed formally on a regular basis to compare TOD metrics across the various typologies.