Increasing trend of urban flooding is a universal phenomenon and poses a great challenge to city administration and urban planners the world over. Problems associated with urban floods range from relatively localized incidents to major incidents, resulting in cities being inundated from a few hours to several days. Therefore, the impact can also be widespread, including temporary relocation of people, damage to civic amenities, deterioration of water quality and risk of epidemics. The problems posed by urban flooding are quite challenging and aggravate with continuous climate change, with its adverse impact affecting variation in rainfall and intra-city /intra-region disparities in the distribution of rainfall.
In order to check the threat of urban flooding, each city should have their Flood mitigation plans (floodplain, river basin, surface water, etc.) strongly embedded within the overall land use policy and master planning of a city. A prompt, well-coordinated and effective response mounted in the aftermath of urban floods not only minimizes casualties and loss of property but also facilitates early recovery.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a predefined set of directives. It is widely used concept by different organization to guarantee the expected outcome without any error. In general terms SOPs can be defined as “A set of directives, covering those features of operations that lend themselves to a definite or standardized procedure”. Such procedures are applicable unless prescribed otherwise in a particular case. Thus, the flexibility necessary in special situations is retained without the loss of its effectiveness.” Standard Operating Policies and Procedures can be effective catalysts to drive performance improvement and improving organizational results. Every good quality system is based on its standard operating procedures (SOPs). In terms of disaster management, a Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is a set of written instructions that is to be followed by an organization to mitigate and manage any disastrous event.
Realizing the aftermath of urban flooding and the actions to be taken to mitigate the disaster, there is a need for clear cut Standard Operating Procedures for mitigating Urban Flooding. This SOP lays down, in a comprehensive manner, the specific actions required to be undertaken by various departments and agencies in a city/town and also organizations under the district administration as well as State Government for responding to urban flooding/disaster of any magnitude.
This Model SOP is an indicative SOP Document issued for the guidance of States and UT Administrations for preparation of their city specific SOPs. The instructions contained in this Model SOP should not be regarded as exhaustive of all the actions that might be considered necessary.